The pouch from Birka Bj716

The grave 716 in Birka is famous especially for its richly-decorated Magyar belt, which was one of my first projects in Viking reenactment (see here: Der Gürtel vom orientalischen Typ aus Birka Grab 716). However, this grave also contained the metal, leather and linen remains of what was most certainly a belt pouch. [Interestingly enough, Inga Hägg seems to have mis-interpreted the remains as a leather caftan with metal loops in a paper from 2001.]

The find

The pouch was a lot simpler than most tarsoly finds from Scandinavia and other tarsoly-bearing countries (especially the Rus dominion as well as the Magyar and Bulgar Khanates). Instead of the usual center mount with floral/palmette designs, cast from copper alloy, this pouch had a simple metal sheet with line decorations as a center mount.

Metallic remains of the pouch from Björkö Bj716, from Birka I: Die Tafeln (plate 136).

The interesting part, though, is not the center mount, but the little piece of metal bent to it. It’s a metal hook or clasp, and was used to close the bag instead of the more common „pull the strap through the slider“ principle which is well-documented for many other extant finds.

This means that in addition to the two well-known principles of closing a tarsoly,

  1. with the center strap pulled through a slider and the center mount, like the Rösta bag or the bag from Bj93
  2. With a little buckle that slid into the center strap, like the Panovo pouch,

there is a third option being realized in Bj716. The hook was riveted with one rivet to the leather underneath, and held the bag closed when it was clasped into the center mount. I will elaborate at the end of this article what I think this means.

A reconstruction attempt

There are awesome reconstructions of the Bj716 pouch by very talented leatherworkers, and their craftsmanship is uncomparable – I’m a dilettante and I know it. 🙂 However, I wanted to create a reconstruction that has the correct materials, is constructed in the correct way and feels like the original may have felt.

Therefore, I chose goat leather (from the grain in the find pictures, I believe the original may have been cow, but I’m not sure), linen and copper alloy (a.k.a. „bronze“) for my reconstruction. I used a slightly widened version of the pattern I employed for an earlier reconstruction, but tried not to go overboard with the tarsoly’s size.

The pens I used to mark the leather and linen parts are also the only modern tools employed in making the pouch – no power tools or other modern utilities were used (apart from some drops of glue to hold the lining in plan). After cutting the leather, I quickly assembled and turned it to find out the correct measurements for the copper-alloy parts.

A rivet plate in the making.

I used some leftover bronze for the center mount, punched four holes in it and chiseled the line decorations into it. I have far too little practice with chiseling and metalcraft, but the general design is easy enough. After that, I cut the hook, punched a hole into it and made five rivet plates to counter the rivets on the inside of the leather.

But wait, isn’t this upside down?

Test fitting the central mount in the archaeologically correct position.

Then, I could try fitting the center mount to the leather to see how it looks. In stark contrast to most tarsoly reproductions out there, this is the correct way to fit the Bj716 center mount – the short sides are the horizontal sides and the long sides are vertical. This is very evident if one looks at the pictures of the find with the center plate and the hook still attached to each other (before they were separately archived at SHM).

It might be argued that the hook is indeed part of the metal loop/slider that is used for many modern reconstructions. However, I fail to understand how only half of that slider could be preserved (and so well, too), and how it should have been bent around the center mount in the fashion in which it was found. Also, there are actually no finds of these metal center sliders, as far as I know – maybe leather sliders/loops were used instead.

Everything seemed to fit well, so I riveted the center mount to the leather as the next step. Why is it that out of four rivets, one turns out really great, two are so-so and one rivet is really crappy, bending and flattening in an uneven fashion? I keep having this problem.

I decided to give this belt a very short loop as I plan to attach it permanently to my Bj716 belt with a metal ring.

Lining, lining, hemming

Hemming the flap
Sewing the pouch from Bj716

Next step: lining the thing. I cut the lining from some grey linen that was left over from an underdress (I think), and I cut it a little wider to provide for some hemming, as I wanted to forgo the usual leather hems on the flap and inner pocket this time. This proved to be time-consuming, but ultimately rewarding work. I used waxed linen yarn to sew the hems (and the leather). Like the original finds, I sewed the pouch „inside out“.

The hemming proved a little challening, as the yarn is rather thick and it was a little fiddly to hem the pouch, but ultimately I was done.

The completed pouch

I watered the pouch, turned it and carefully pushed the seams outwards to give the pouch its final shape. When I took the pictures below, it was still a little wet, so the colour will likely change after treating it with beeswax/leather fat.

A reconstruction of the pouch from Bj716 with the flap opened
Finished reconstruction of the pouch from Bj716

The peculiarities of Bj716

The grave 716, as I said earlier, was famous mainly for its belt with rich bronze decorations. This belt has been discussed at length in academia, especially in the body of work by Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonsson and her colleagues. Much speculation has arisen if the person in the grave was indeed a native Scandinavian or rather a magyar mercenary who died as a member of the garrison and was laid to grave in Birka’s cemetary. The grave contains caftan buttons, so there was clearly a tendency to wear Eastern fashion by the guy in the grave.

The way the tarsoly was constructed, however, makes me think that it might have been a Scandinavian in that grave, after all. Its crudeness (compared to the elaborate copper-alloy mounts in other tarsoly in Birka) screams „cheap local imitation“ to me. This is purely speculation though, as no osteological/genetical analysis of the bones from the grave is known to me.

Summary

In this article, I present a reconstruction of the pouch in Birka Bj716 which is correct according to the archaeological record. The center mount is placed with the long sides vertically, and a simple hook from copper-alloy metal is used to close the pouch, instead of the strap-and-loop system that is usally applied.
The pouch has been reconstructed with only the materials found in the grave, namely copper alloy for the central mount, leather for the pouch and linen for the lining. Thanks for reading!

Termine 2016

Nach langer, langer Abstinenz möchten wir hier wieder ein bißchen aktiver werden. Jaja, diese hehren Wünsche. Auf jeden Fall erst einmal etwas Einfaches – die Terminliste. Einige Termine (eigentlich nur einer) sind noch nicht bestätigt, aber zumindest die meisten Termine für 2016 stehen eigentlich schon.

  • 8.4.-10.4. – Wikingermarkt in Schlotzau (Hessen)
  • 26.-29.5. – Anno 1280 in Gütersloh (NRW) Mehr Infos auf der Anno-1280 Website
  • 3.-5.6. – Burgfest Neustadt-Glewe (McPomm) Mehr Infos auf der Website des Burgfests
  • 25.-26.6. – Hábrók-Markt in Ibbenbüren (NRW) Mehr Infos bei den Stevenmännern
  • 29.-31.7. – Festiwal Słowian i Wikingów in Wolin (Polen), Mehr Infos auf der Museums-Website
  • 17.-18.9. – „Die Wikinger kommen!“ im Archäologischen Freilichtmuseum Oerlinghausen (NRW) – mehr Infos auf der Website des AFM
  • Evtl.: 7.-9.10. – HIKG – Die Große Schlacht in Osterburken (BaWü) – Infos bei der HIKG

In diesem Jahr sind wir leider im Hochsommer weder in Haithabu noch auf den dänischen Märkten unterwegs. Thore kommt nämlich im August in den Kindergarten und wir wissen leider noch nicht, ob wir unseren Urlaub da „verbraten“ müssen (Eingewöhnung und so). Daher spielen wir lieber „Nummer Sicher“ und fahren im Juli und August nicht weg. Nur der Arnulf, der darf nach Wolin und sich dort mit Polen kloppen. 🙂

Wir hoffen, viele von Euch dieses Jahr wiederzusehen und freuen uns auf eine entspannte Marktsaison!

Aus dem Maschinenraum

Heute Abend war Putz- und Flickstunde für dieses Blog.Ich habe ein paar kleinere Änderungen gemacht, damit die erwartete Besucherflut für usnere neuen Artikel kommen kann. 😉

Leider hatten wir vor einigen Wochen einen ungebetenen Besucher, der auf jeder einzelnen Seite diverse Links zu Viagra- und anderen Pillenshops versteckt hat. Diese Links habe ich nun von Hand entfernt; ich hoffe, daß ich alles erwischt habe.

Außerdem habe ich einen neuen Cache installiert und hoffe, daß die Seiten jetzt etwas schneller ausgeliefert werden.

Blechbeschlagene Gürteltasche aus Birka

Ein weiteres Sommer-Herbst-Projekt ist in den vergangenen Wochen trotz Babystreß tatsächlich fertig geworden: Ein blechbeschlagenes Gürteltäschchen aus Birka.

Klappenblech der Tasche aus Birka Bj819

Klappenblech der Tasche aus Birka Bj819 (Foto: SHM)

Bei diesem Exemplar handelt es sich um eine Interpretation der in Grab 819 gefundenen Gürteltasche bzw. des Rests. Gefunden wurde das Taschenblech nebst den Beschlägen, die auf das Blech genietet waren, sowie Reste von Leinen, das in der Tasche wohl Fächer gebildet hat. Die Tasche ist in Birka II, Band 1 sehr gut beschrieben, auf S. 151f. findet sich eine Analyse ihres Aufbaus und ihrer Funktion. Es handelte sich wohl um eine Art Schütt-Tasche, um Hacksilber und Kleingeld aufzubewahren, und ich habe mich mangels anderer Einsatzmöglichkeiten auch bei meinem Versuch einer Reproduktion an diese Funktion gehalten. Weiterlesen

Grundausstattung für den Nachwuchs

Der eine oder andere Leser wird schon mitbekommen haben, daß wir im Oktober – rechtzeitig zur HIKG – Nachwuchs erwarten. Und der wird bereits fröhlich eingekleidet… Von Neustadt-Glewe habe ich wendegenähte Babyschuhe von Snorri mitgebracht und auf dem Hábrok-Markt habe ich eine Gürtelgarnitur magyarischer Machart bei Vlad von den Silverwolf erstanden.
Dazu wurde heute Babykleidung von Othala Craft geliefert – allerdings in verschiedenen Größen. Die Tunika wird der Junior bereits abgelegt haben, wenn er in die Pluderhosen reingewachsen ist.
Trotzdem niedlich.
IMG_3114

Kochexperiment 1: Pökelfleisch

Heute flog das Buch „Kochen wie die Wikinger“ hier ein und zwei Rezepte haben es uns beim ersten Durchblättern direkt angetan: Pökelfleisch und Fladenbrot. Das wollten wir direkt mal ausprobieren – sowohl Frenja als auch ich haben noch nie gepökelt. Während sie sich also an den Fladen-Teig machte (dazu mehr später), habe ich losgepökelt.

Weiterlesen